Sunday, March 25, 2018
The development of altruism
By Hing Keung Ma, Frontiers in Public Health, 12 October 2017. It puts the evolution of altruism in a developmental context, using empirical evidence from Maslow, Kohhberg and Ma. The 10-stages of altruism go from egoism up to natural. Each stage extends altruism to larger and larger groups and cites empirical studies to support each stage. The statistical data is beyond my knowledge base but there for those so inclined. One can also see the evolutionary development from egoism to kin selection to reciprocal altruism to larger and larger groups, until in the upper stages it becomes normative, more generalized and ultimately universal and natural.