"Of the term 'postformal' there are many conceptual analyses, in which severe criticism has been laid, as Deirdre Kramer, Helena Marchand and me. So far nobody has been able to reject these articles as far as I know."
Here is her academia.edu website with some of her papers. For example, the abstract from "Integrative thinking is the key" follows, which I posted in the IPS real/false reason thread:
"Post-formal relativistic-dialectical thinking has been widely claimed to be a new developmental stage of intellectual development. Other theoretical models come very close to post-formal thinking with overlapping features, such as the study of wisdom and epistemic understanding, as well as models of expertise, critical thinking and skepticism. No coherent theory exists in fields of post-formal and relativistic-dialectical thinking,though scholars have claimed that there is some similarity between the models. While empirical evidence of interconnectedness between them exists, a major difficulty lies in the theoretical definition of concepts. We critically assess the definitions of relativism and dialectical thinking and show these to be ambiguous and weakly defined terms.Instead we argue that the notion of ‘integrative thinking’ should be used instead of ‘post-formal’ or ‘relativistic-dialectical thinking’. Integration can be additive or transformative. Transformational integration of various psychological domains seems to be the core component in models of adult cognitive development."
Of relevance to recent posts in this IPS thread (here and above/below), more from the above article:
"An important question remains: from which standpoint are knowledge and thinking relativized in adult reasoning models; from a logical, subjective, or socio-cultural viewpoint? In addition, it has to be noted that these standpoints are not exclusiveto each other (Pojman, 1999). Commons’ GST model focuses on the causal thinking domain, and reasoning is relativized from a logical standpoint with other concurrent models aiming to explain the same phenomenon. The other post-formal thinking models have gone beyond causal reasoning. In Labouvie-Vief’s model (Labouvie-Vief & Diehl,2000) relativism is understood as co-existing in different forms of ‘logic’: the logic of emotion and volition and the logic of intellect, which may differ from each other. Relativism is, here, seen from a subjective standpoint" (16).